Football as it is commonly known people and American football are both derived from various types of foot ball sports (football) being played in Britain in the mid-19th century. American football is a variation of rugby for more carry the ball by hand and only once in a while just kicked.
In the early years of the 20th century, professional teams began popping up in mill towns located in the area of Pennsylvania and the American Midwest. After that, the National League of American Football (NFL) was founded in the city of Canton, Ohio in 1920. Professional American football league continues to survive as second most popular sport in the U.S. until after World War II. Television footage managed to attract public attention to professional American football league. In the 1960s, game finally beat the popularity of the professional league baseball and American football college level. The first Super Bowl game between the champions of the NFL and AFL champions took place in 1967, and ending on the second joining the league in 1970.
Field and players
American football is played on a rectangular field, with a length of 120 yards (110 meters) wide and 53 1 / 3 yards (49 meters). Outermost lines along the field is called the sideline (line side), while the outermost line at both ends of the field called the end line (finish line). On both the left and right field are the goal line (goal line). The distance between the two sides of the goal line is 100 yards. Fields scored a place called the end zone (end zone) and 10 yards in length calculated from the goal line until the finish line.
Along the field lines cross is made every 5 yards, called the yard (yard line). Every 10 yards, the distance marked yard line that starts from both sides of the goal line and ended up in the middle of the field (goal line), -10, -20, -30, -40, 50, 40 -, 30 -, 20 -, 10 - (the goal line). The lines that run across the football field similar to the lines on the rugby league field. Short lines at the edge of the field is called hash marks (a hash) that mark each length of yards from the field. Each initial movement of the ball starting with a hash mark the ball's position at or between two hash marks.
At the end of each end zone (end zone) there goalposts (called the goal posts or uprights). American football goalpost shaped like a tuning fork with a pillar height of 10 feet (3 meters). Goals must be signed between the two goalposts. Both goal posts separated by a distance of 18 feet 6 inches (5.6 meters) and mounted on an iron cross (cross bar) to form the mouth of the goal as the letter "U". In inter-school match, the distance between two goal posts are 24 feet (7.3 meters) so that the ball more easily entered. High goalposts until the very end to reach 30 feet (9 meters) from the top surface of the field. On the field for the game of professional, college and high school, the goal stanchion placed outside the playing field. Pillar also made curved outwards the field to reduce the risk of injury from hitting the pole.
Each team took to the field with 11 players. The team could replace some or all of the players when the time is still possible, or the movement of the ball during the pause. Each team has 46 players in one game and wear can be exchanged at any time throughout the game. Almost all the players the chance to down play and no one is unemployed.
Standard game consists of 4 rounds (called quarters), while each round consists of 15 minutes. Called the halftime break is given after the 2nd round is completed. 12-minute one-act system used in inter-school match. Hours match ball is stopped if there is a movement which, according to game rules require that the match was stopped, the result when the game becomes much longer. NFL game often takes more than 3 hours since the game clock to be stopped when there is no ball movement.
If both teams still scored the series until the 4th round is over, the NFL extended the match with an additional round for 15 minutes (overtime). In the game system used sudden death overtime, first team to score declared the winner, even though the opposing team no chance to get the ball. Match declared a regular game series in the NFL when both teams failed to score in extra rounds.
In an NFL playoff round match, when both teams continued to score the series, the game continued with additional rounds until one team wins.
The movement of the ball
The team that has a ball called the attackers team. Tim attacker was given a set of initial opportunity that consists of 4 times to bring the ball down as far as 10 yards closer to the end zone field (field goal) the opponent. If a team attacker managed to bring the ball as far as 10 yards in a single set of opportunities early, attacking team is entitled to an additional opportunity set (called a first down), which also consists of 4 times down to bring the ball back as far as 10 yards or score. If a team attacker failed to get a first down after making 4 times down, then the ownership of the ball moves to the opposing team.
Except in the initial round of the 3rd or after the team managed to score a score, the movement of the ball always begins with the snap position. The team dealing with a team attacker attackers on an imaginary line starting position the ball (line of scrimmage). One player from the attacking team passes the ball called the center (the operand is called "snap") through the gap in between both legs to a colleague who was behind the (usually passed to the quarterback).
The player carrying the ball in 2 ways:
1. Running the ball, this technique called Rushing. Technique gives the ball into the hands of teammate called a handoff.
2. Throwing the ball to a teammate, known as the throw to the front (forward pass) or passing. Throw-forward is a distinguishing characteristic of American football with other football sports. For a one-time play, the team once the attacker may only throw the ball forward, and it must be done from behind an imaginary line starting position the ball (line of scrimmage). In addition to a one-time opportunity to throw the ball forward, the ball may only be passed sideways or thrown back (called a lateral pass). Unlike rugby, throw-back matches are rarely done professional American football.
The opportunity ends down and the ball declared dead when:
* The player who carried the ball dropped to the ground (ditekel) or successfully halted the advance motion opposing team member (as approved by the referee).
* Pitch into the future can not be arrested until the exit from the field, or fall into the field of play before they can be arrested. This event is called incomplete pass (incomplete pass). The ball is returned to its original place at the beginning of the line the ball (line of scrimmage) to start the next down.
* The ball and players to be outside the field.
* One team scored.
The referee or the referee blew the whistle a few people to declare dead ball and finished down a one-time opportunity.
Before down done, each team could negotiate to discuss strategy player movement (called a play) during the down progress. Down position is often also referred to as play.
Change of ownership of the ball
Tim attacker has the right to ball until there is an incident:
* The attacker failed to get a first down after being given the opportunity early in the form of 4 times to bring the ball down as far as 10 yards. The team last took over the ball at the spot where the ball dead on 4th down. Change of ownership of the ball is called a turnover on downs.
* The team striker scored by performing touch-down or kick a field goal. Once scored, the team attackers formation of the region's own special kick to the opponent who called the kickoff.
* The team attackers Punt kick into the opposite field. Punt kick made by dropping the ball from the handle and kicked him before the ball touched the ground game. Punt kick down almost always done on the 4th, when the team attacker does not want to risk the ball taken the opposing team, or team attacker is still too far from the end zone to get a chance to kick a field goal.
* Catch the throw to the opponent team by a team front attackers. This event is called interception (interception). Opposing players who managed to get the ball in this way may run with the ball as far as possible to succeed ditekel, forced out of the field, or print a score.
* The ball off the attacker or team accidentally dropped the ball (called a fumble) and the other team picked it up. Just as interception, an opponent who had picked up the ball may run as far as possible by bringing the ball up to succeed ditekel, forced out of the field, or print a score. Change of ownership of the ball because the ball falls or captured the opponent by way of interception is called turnover.
* The attackers failed to kick a field goal toward the opposing goal. The team survived to get the ball down at the point of the last payment (or according to NFL rules, at which point kick failed). When the kick failed to do from a distance of 20 yards from the end zone, the opposing team get the ball on line 20 yards in the region itself.
* The team attacker who carried the ball ditekel, forced out of the field, the ball was taken out of the field, or conduct violations in the end zone. The latter event is rare and is called safety.
Teams can score by:
* Touchdown (TD) with a value of 6 points. The incident occurred when a player carrying a touchdown run or catch the ball throws the ball in the opponent's end zone field.
o After the touchdown, teams try to score by adding scores converted (conversion). The ball is placed on line 3 yards of the opposing team (two-yard line in the NFL) and kicked into the air to pass through the bar across the opponent's goal and hovering between two goalposts as well as field goal to get 1 extra points. Besides the kick is worth 1 point, the attacker can choose the conversion team is worth 2 points (two-point conversion). In the two-point conversion, re striker tried to run the ball or pass the ball into the end zone field as do the touchdown.
* Field goal (field goal or FG) with a value of 3 points. The ball was kicked into the air to pass through the bar across the opponent's goal and hovering between two goalposts. Before the kick, the ball is placed vertically above the ground by fellow team, or is released from the handle and kicked (the second method, called the drop-kick almost never done because it only gives 2 times the goals in the period of 60 years). Business scores with a kick a field goal is usually done on 4th down when the ball is near the goal by an opponent, or simply left little time to score in other ways.
* Safety with a value of 2 points. This score is printed team survive if the team has the ball attacker who was forced to retreat to field its own end zone and fell ditekel, or any of the following happens: the ball apart from the handle in the field of his own end zone, the ball is kicked successfully blocked and crashed in the field own end zone, or in violation of its own end zone.
Kickoff and free kicks
The opening kick-called kickoff conducted at the beginning of the game, early 3rd round, or after the team scored a touchdown or field goal. Tim attacker kicked the ball from his own field in the line 30 yards (NFL) or 35-yard line for the college game. The team survived the ball, and tried to catch it, then bring it forward as far as possible toward the opposite field. The point where the players from the team managed to survive the team stopped the attacker used as a starting point for the team attacker to conduct a series of attacks (called drive) into the field of the opposing team. When players from the team managed to catch the ball the results endure kickoff in his own end zone, the player can choose to take the ball away, or do touchback by kneeling in the end zone himself. If there touchback, the team survived turned into a team attacker, and the point of attack starts from the line 20 yards. Events touchback also occurs when a ball kicked until he came out of the end zone. In addition, the kick Punt and turnover in the area of the end zone can also end up with a touchback.
After the safety, the team that lost 2 points attacker must start the game with a free kick placekick (placed vertically and kicked the ball) or Punt (the ball is released from the handle and kicked before falling to the ground) from line 20 yards of his own.
Violations can be detrimental to the team who violated, or could result in injury so the team who violate imposed various penalties. When the team survive in violation, the punishment is usually in the form of early movement for the more advanced the ball near the end zone field teams survive. Conversely, if the attacker commits an offense team, early movements of the ball pushed back for getting away from the opponent's end zone field.
Most of the punishment in the form of repetition down. Some kinds of violations committed by the team survive automatically give you a first down (one set down a new one) to the team attacker. Conversely, violations committed by the team resulted in the loss of the chance the attacker down. When the punishment given to the team attacker was still able to carry the ball as far as 10 yards, the team still may get a first attacker down as usual.
If violation occurs, the referee threw the cloth (flag) yellow near the location of violations occur.
Violations are common:
* False start (false start): Players from the team moves to unauthorized attackers after row to make snap. If one start, play automatically considered dead.
* Offside: Players from the team attacker was in the wrong field when carried down. When movement player (play) has occurred, the penalty is deferred depends on the results of such play.
* Holding: The treatment is not valid as interesting or body snatched opponent that is not carrying the ball.
* Pass interference: Treatment unauthorized banging body into an opponent so as not to catch the throw the ball forward which is aimed towards the player.
* Delay: The act of delaying the movement of players (play) within a certain period after the previous play ended.
* Block the illegally from the rear: The player from the team attacker illegitimately pushed defender from behind.
* Face mask: Treatment grab or touch the iron mask worn to other players while trying to perform Dachshund.
Most American soccer players have very specialized roles. An NFL player or college level players just need to play as a striker or defender alone.
* Rows of attackers who called the offensive line (OL) consists of 5 players in charge of protecting the ball thrower, and pave the way for a fellow who ran the team while carrying the ball by blocking the team members survive. In addition to the player who served as the center, members of the row attackers usually do not charge carried off the ball.
* Players quarterback (QB) is a player receiving the pass snap when play (ball movement) begins. Players can choose to submit quarterback the ball to players running back (RB), threw it to another player, or alone carried off the ball.
* Rows of players running back (RB) line up behind or next to the player the quarterback with the specific task carried off the ball. In addition, RB players also served to block and catch the throw the ball, and sometimes handed the ball to fellow RB players. When a team has 2 players RB, a player acting as a halfback (HB), and a longer acting as a tailback (TB) is most likely to carry the ball while in charge of run-protected players who served as a fullback (FB).
* Player of wide receivers (WR) who was standing on the left-right line and catch the throw to the next task.
* Rows of players tight end (TE) that lined the outside row of the attacker, and can catch the throw to the front (like a player wide receiver) or protect quarterback players simultaneously open running room for players who carry the ball.
At the beginning of each movement of the ball (play), there must be at least 7 players standing on the imaginary line the ball initial position (line of scrimmage). Another player can stand anywhere behind the imaginary line. The number of players who served as a running back, wide receiver and tight end may vary depending on the decision of the team who do play. The team that just needs to advance the ball 1 yard probably will use the tight end 3 players, 2 players running back, and do not need a wide receiver because the player does not need to throw away the future. Conversely, teams that have carried the ball 20 yards as far as possible to replace all the players are running back and tight end player with wide receiver player only.
* In most situations the game, the team commissioned to survive at least 3 players as a player last defender (called defensive back) or often called safeties (cornerback). His task hindering opposing players who receive the throw the ball, and tried to throw not been arrested or otherwise do not complete the throw made by the referee. Players defender survive often also tasked the player hit the quarterback.
* Players linebacker position between the defensive line (defense) and defender players survive, players hit the quarterback duties or obstruct an opponent who may be given a toss.
NFL players back number is determined based on position in the team:
* 1-9: Players quarterback, kicker (kicker and punter)
* 10-19: Quarterbacks, kickers, kicker (kicker and punter), wide receivers and players
* 20-49: Players running back and a player last defender
* 50-59: Players player center and linebacker
* 60-79: Players line of defense and offensive line
* 80-89: Players receiver and tight end player
* 90-99: Players line of defense and linebacker player
One hallmark of American football is the interruption of the game after the down ends, so each team could use a new strategy to play the soon to be played. Each team has a handbook containing dozens to hundreds of strategies that can be played.
American football teams spend a lot of time to prepare a strategy before it could come down to compete. Team members and coaches need time to days to develop strategies, including studying the match video footage. A long time to strategize plus hard physical labor during the game cause American football team usually can only play once a week.
American football is a physical contact sport. The defender must manage in a way that brings the player hit the ball to fall. The defender must make a physical impact in order to drop a player who is carrying the ball, in ways that allowed the rules. The defender who perform Dachshund prohibited kicking, punching, or tackle opposing players leg which was carrying the ball. Face shield is also a player on the helmet should not be taken or held. In addition, the Dachshund defender should not be done using a helmet. In addition to the ban for unnecessary roughness as mentioned above, all forms of physical conflict when doing Dachshund is legitimate. The defender who stormed into the striker has a great chance to stop the advance of the opposing team. In the game, the player the quarterback is a routine target defender who ran from the top of my voice beyond the reach of the player views the quarterback to drop it.
American football players wear a variety of protective equipment to avoid injuries, such as helmets, protective shoulder, hip protectors, and elbow protectors. Various protective equipment such as this has been known since decades ago, and now increasingly be relied upon to protect players from injury permanent. Players who consciously shielded with protective equipment are often more eager to play hard. Players can only desperately threw himself on top of another player or into a pile of other player's body without the risk of significant injury. Various unnecessary roughness resulted in the NFL issued a complicated series of penalties for various types of physical collisions that are not necessary.
Danger of injury and equipment necessary to avoid injury while playing American football makes this sport is not suitable to be played as a recreational sport. Similar game but without a physical impact such as touch football and flag football is often played by people as a recreational sport.
American football is the most watched sport in the United States. Gallup poll shows American football as a favorite sport in the U.S. since 1972, beat the popularity of baseball. American football is the most watched event in U.S. television viewers, surpassing the number of television viewers to other sporting events. American football championship called the Super Bowl continuously ranked top in the number of viewers of all the events broadcast on American television.
National League of American Football (National Football League or NFL), which consists of 32 teams is the only professional American football league. On game day, called Super Bowl Sunday, football fans have a party with family and friends to eat together while watching the game. Most Americans think the day the Super Bowl as a "day for a party at home."
Antarperguruan match high-called college football is also popular in North America. Four stadiums used for American football college level (Michigan Stadium, Beaver Stadium, Neyland Stadium and Ohio Stadium), each of which can accommodate 100,000 spectators. In some areas, inter-school match also witnessed more than 10,000 spectators. Antarperguruan game high and inter-high school held in the autumn is an annual event that enlivened with cheerleaders, marching bands, homecoming party, and a tailgate party get-togethers in the parking lot to eat and drink.
Following tradition, inter-school matches take place on Friday, high antarperguruan match held on Saturday, while the professional game on Sunday, with additional professional game on Monday night (Monday Night Football). After a regular season game high antarperguruan completed, the NFL began a few matches on Saturday. The match carried on holiday special in the fall and winter, especially at Thanksgiving and New Year's Day.
Outside the United States and Canada, this sport is called American football or gridiron football because the lines on the field resembles the gridiron (the lattice of iron to bake.)
In Europe, the NFL has a European league (NFL Europe) are still in development stage. NFL Europe has a team in 5 cities in Germany and 1 team in the Netherlands. NFL Europe League using the regulation issued by the National League play American football, soccer while Canada has its own regulations issued by the Canadian league.